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Henry Hartshorne papers

Identifier: MSS 2/030

Scope and Contents

This extensive collection of Henry Hartshorne's papers documents his professional life and activities, concentrating on texts of his lecture courses to students and manuscripts of his published and unpublished writings.

Series 1 consists of sketchy records of Hartshorne's private medical practice which began in 1848. The series contains a journal with a chronological account of his patients from the opening of the office until 20 October 1848. The journal includes financial accounts of expenses incurred in setting up his practice. A statistical record of ailments Hartshorne treated in his practice during 1859 is also included.

Information on Hartshorne's several professional positions and appointments is contained in Series 2. There is one folder of letters (1860-1871), primarily from Philadelphia physicians, attesting to Hartshorne's professional competence and ability. Most of these letters are addressed to the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Correspondents include B. Howard Rand, John Bell, D. Francis Condie, Wilson Jewell, Isaac Remington, Robert P. Thomas, Ellwood Wilson, James E. Rhoads, Joseph Parrish, Thomas Stewardson, W. S. W. Ruschenberger, Richard Clements, S. D. Gross, Daniel B. Smith, Turner Hamilton, and G. J. Riche. The remainder of Series 2 is sorted by institution and roughly chronological in sequence. Most folders contain single items electing Hartshorne to a certain position. Two notable items are a recipe book (1846-1847) from Hartshorne's residency at Pennsylvania Hospital, and a detailed report on cases seen in the 2nd Ward of U.S.A. General Hospital at 4th and George Streets, Philadelphia, during the Civil War.

Series 3 contains a chronological run of manuscripts of Henry Hartshorne's single lectures, addresses, or speeches (18381893). Most of the speeches deal with hygiene; many were given at Haverford College. Whenever possible, each instance and location of the delivery of a speech has been recorded, as Hartshorne would often deliver the same speech at different institutions and emend his text for different audiences.

The bulk of this collection of Hartshorne papers is contained in Series 4. This series contains the manuscript texts

(1853-1887) of Henry Hartshorne's lecture courses on various subjects principally hygiene at different institutions. Although occasional texts exist for courses at the Academy of Natural Sciences, the Franklin Institute, the Institute for Colored Youth, Pennsylvania College, the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery, and the Philadelphia College of Medicine, there are extensive texts for courses on hygiene at the University of Pennsylvania's Auxiliary Faculty of Medicine; etiology, hygiene, and physiology at the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania; and hygiene, organic sciences, and philosophy at Haverford College. In addition to the manuscript texts of these lectures, the series also includes additional manuscript and printed material used by Henry Hartshorne to amplify or update his lectures on hygiene as well as examples of examination questions based on these lectures.

Series 5 consists of a small collection of manuscript notes and printed material (1866-1893), presumably assembled as research files for Hartshorne's lectures or articles. Principal subjects represented are cholera, hygiene, and vaccination.

Manuscripts of various writings published and unpublished of Henry Hartshorne are preserved in Series 6. There are several poems, articles concerning Haverford College, a biographical sketch of Joseph Hartshorne, and the first chapter and a plot synopsis of an unfinished novel, The hospital of St. Mark. The bulk of this series, however, is professional in nature. Included is the incomplete text of a prize winning essay on remittent fever for the Northern Medical Association (1850); a report, produced for the American Public Health Association in 1875, on sanitary conditions at resorts; a copy of the fifth edition of Hartshorne's Essentials of the principles and practices of medicine (1881) with extensive notes and emendations, possibly for a projected sixth edition; the preface, lists of illustrations, and parts of the text for a high school physiology textbook (1885); two chapters on diagnosis written for William Pepper's System of practical medicine by American authors (1885-1886); and the manuscript table of contents and several indices for Hartshorne's A household manual of medicine, surgery, nursing and hygiene, [1886].

Henry Hartshorne's work and interest in hygiene found another expression in his concern for public water supplies. His work on two committees, one, in 1889, for citizens in Germantown, the other, circa 1891, as a member of a subcommittee of Philadelphia Council's Water Committee, formed to determine the best source for the city's future water supply, is documented in Series 7. Correspondence, newsclippings, and Hartshorne's manuscript and typescript reports are included.

A few miscellaneous items concerning Hartshorne's membership or activity in professional organizations (1856-1880), such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Medical Association, the Audubon Society, and the British Medical Association, are preserved in Series 8.

Some miscellaneous material (1836-1897) is preserved in Series 9. Items of interest include: Hartshorne's notes from his student days at Haverford College on the ethical lectures of Daniel B. Smith (circa 1836); one folder of book reviews and printed testimonials concerning published works, principally Hartshorne's revision of J. Russell Reynolds' System of medicine (1880); and his own theory of the origin of the Arabic numeral system (1893).

Series 10 is composed of 32 lantern slides; most are undated. The slides in Series 10.1, all encased in wood sleeves, are of natural history subjects. Series 10.2 contains microscopic examinations, and Series 10.3 consists of views of fireplaces and ventilation systems. These slides were probably used during Hartshorne's lectures.


  • 1836 - 1897


Biographical / Historical

Henry Hartshorne, Philadelphia physician and educator, was born on 16 March 1823. He was the third child of Joseph Hartshorne (1779-1850), a Philadelphia physician, and Anna Bonsall, and the younger brother of Edward Hartshorne (18181885), another Philadelphia physician. Henry Hartshorne married Mary E. Brown (d.1886) on 8 January 1849; they had a daughter, Anna Cope Hartshorne (1860-1957). Hartshorne died in Tokyo on 10 February 1897.

In 1839, Hartshorne received an A.B. from Haverford College (then Haverford School.) He received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1845; his thesis was entitled, "Water and hydropathy". Hartshorne received an A.M. in 1860, and the University accorded him an honorary LL.D. in 1884. After completing his M.D., Hartshorne served as Resident Physician at Pennsylvania Hospital from 1846 to 1848. He then opened his medical practice on 22 April 1848. In 1853-1854, he was Professor of the Institutes of Medicine at the Philadelphia College of Medicine. In the following year, he worked in Columbia, Pennsylvania, during a cholera outbreak there. In 1855, he became consulting physician and lecturer in clinical medicine at Philadelphia Hospital. From 1857 to 1858, he lectured on natural history at the Franklin Institute. In 1859, he became Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine at Pennsylvania College in Gettysburg and held this post until war broke out in 1861. During the Civil War, Hartshorne worked at two government hospitals in Philadelphia and volunteered his medical services at Gettysburg.

He also served as Attending Physician and, later, Physician to the Protestant Episcopal Hospital (1859-1862) and to the Magdalen Asylum (1849-1864). He became Professor of Anatomy, Physiology, Hygiene, and Natural History at Central High School, Philadelphia, in 1862. In 1866, he taught hygiene as a member of the newly formed Auxiliary Faculty of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1867, he became Professor of Organic Science and, later, Philosophy, at Haverford College. Also at this time, Hartshorne became Professor of the Diseases of Children at Woman's Medical College; he subsequently became Professor of Physiology and Hygiene and worked for the medical education of women. He left Woman's

Medical College in 1876 to become President of Howland Collegiate School in Union Springs, New York; the school closed in 1878. Hartshorne then returned to Philadelphia and opened the East Germantown Girls' School which closed in 1880.

Henry Hartshorne visited Japan in 1893 and returned in 1895 to work in the Quaker missions in that country. He remained in Japan until his death. He concentrated on the suppression of the opium traffic in Formosa and improved care for the insane.

Henry Hartshorne was elected to fellowship in the College of Physicians of Philadelphia in 1851. He was also a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Pathological Society of Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania State Medical Society. He was one of the founders of the American Public Health Association in 1872.

From 1873 to 1876 and from 1881 to 1893, he edited the Friends Review. He published poetry, one novel, many articles on the physical and natural sciences, and several medical works, including Essentials of the principles and practice of medicine (1867) and A conspectus of the medical sciences (1869). Hartshorne was also the American Medical Association's Prize Essayist in 1856.


12 boxes

Language of Materials


Custodial History

This large collection of Henry Hartshorne's professional papers was donated to the Historical Collections of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia on 6 April 1956 by Henry Hartshorne's daughter, Anna, through the agency of Mrs. F. Maurice McPhedran. Prior to that time, after the closing of the Hartshorne house, the papers were lodged in the Coulter Street meetinghouse of the Germantown Monthly Meeting of the

Religious Society of Friends; Mrs. F. Maurice McPhedran and Anna C. Evans were empowered to dispose of them. A preliminary inventory of the collection was made by W. B. McDaniel II in 1956. The collection was processed in October 1989.

During processing, several sets of foundry proofs for Hartshorne's Household manual were discarded. The collection also included an extensive set of reprints and journals in which Hartshorne was published or mentioned. Reprints duplicating the existing collection of the CPP Library were discarded; uncatalogued reprints were retained for eventual integration with the Library's holdings. The journals and periodicals were also removed, but a complete list of citations was compiled (see Appendix 1).

According to information received from Diana Peterson, another

substantial collection of Henry Hartshorne material, including a significant body of medical correspondence, is at the Quaker Collection, Haverford College Library.

Materials Removed from Collection

JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS REMOVED FROM COLLECTION (includes proceedings of medical societies and articles, poems, and book reviews by Henry Hartshorne):


Vol. 4, no. 96, 10 June 1882 Review of F. L. Oswald, Physical education ... pp.136-137.

Vol. 4, no.108, 2 September 1882 Article, "Tracts of the anti vaccination movement", pp.328-329.

Vol. 5, no.114, 14 October 1882 Review of T. Ribot, Diseases of memory ... (1822), p.9.

Vol. 11, no.288, 13 February 1886 Sonnet, "To W. E. Gladstone", p.265.

Vol. 12, no.310, 17 July 1886 Sonnet, "To morrow", p.200.

Vol. 16, no.404, 5 May 1888 Article, "After all, what is poetry" [incomplete], p.42.


Vol. 1, no. 2, February 1867 and no. 3, March 1867 Article, "What things are Caesar's?", pp.33-36 and 62-65.


Vol. 67, July 1857 Review of R. H. Coolidge, Statistical report on the sickness and mortality... (1856), pp.119-142.

Vol. 79, July 1860 Review of R. B. Todd, Clinical lectures on certain acute diseases (1860), pp.167-181.

Vol. 80, October 1860 Review of T. Inman, Foundation for a new theory and practice of medicine (1860), pp.450-458.

Vol. 85, January 1862 Review of E. Meryon, History of medicine... (1861), pp.129-140.jVol. 87, July 1862 Review of H. Dobell, Lectures on the germs and vestiges of disease... (1861), pp.157-164.

Vol. 92, October 1863 Review of W. A. Hammond, Treatise on hygiene... (1863), pp.411-432.

Vol. 93, January 1864 Review of I. Ray, Mental hygiene (1863), pp.151-163.

Vol. 95, July 1864 Summary of the transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, pp.89-142; Review of J. J. Woodward, Outline of the chief camp diseases... (1863), pp.159-171.

Vol. 96, October 1864 Review of J. M. DaCosta, Medical diagnosis ... (1864), pp.423-440.

Vol. 99, July 1865 Review of C. B. Radcliffe, Lectures on epilepsy ... (1864), pp.121-130; Review of A. W. Barclay, Medical errors (1864), pp.157-162.

Vol.111, July 1868 Article, "On a new method of sphygmographic observation; with remarks on the present aspect of vascular physiology", pp.287-291.

Vol.130, April 1873 Review of A. Wolff, Zymotic diseases (1872) and J. Ross, Graft theory of disease (1872), pp.514-517.

Vol.137, January 1875 Review of recent articles on quarantine (1874), pp.245-247.

Vol.145, January 1877 Review of C. B. Radcliffe, Vital motion ... (1876), pp.202-206.

Vol.147, July 1877 Review of J. H. Bennet, Nutrition in health and disease ... (1876), pp.201203.


Vol. 6, no. 12, December 1872 Article, "On the relation between organic vigor and sex", pp.747-751.


Vol. 14, no. 6, 13 October 1860 and no. 7, 20 October 1860 Article, "Hygiene of the study", pp.91-93 and 107-109.

Vol. 26, no. 31, 22 March 1873 Review of G. H. Curteis, Bampton lectures for 1871 [incomplete], pp.489-491.


Vol. 11, no. 6, June 1855 Article, "On the nature and treatment of cholera", pp.21-324.

Vol. 12, no. 12, December 1856 Review of G. B. Wood, Treatise on therapeutics and pharmacology... (1856), pp.728-743.


Vol. 4, no. 2, 14 April 1860 Transactions of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, pp.34-39.

Vol. 9, nos. 11-12, 13 and 20 December 1862 Transactions of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, pp.267-271.

Vol. 14, no. 7, 17 February 1866 Review of P. W. Ellsworth, Word made flesh (1865), p.132.

Vol. 14, no. 19, 12 May 1866 Article, "Introductory lecture to course on hygiene, Auxiliary Faculty of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, April 3rd, 1866", pp.361-365.

Vol. 16, no. 22, 1 June 1867 Review of T. Smith, Inquiry into the origin of modern anaesthesia (1867), pp.465-466.


Vol. 5, no. 3, November 1858 Review of J. C. Bucknill, Manual of psychological medicine ... (1858), R. G. Hill, Concise history of the entire abolition ... (1857) and J. C. Bucknill, Unsoundness of mind ... (1857), pp.404-423.


Vol. 1, no. 4, July 1857 Review of R. H. Coolidge, Statistical report on the sickness and mortality ... (1856), pp.561-569.


Vol. 2, no. 25 Sonnet, "The Constitution: 1787-1887", p.206.


Vol. 16, no. 490, 4 September 1886 Transactions of the Philadelphia Clinical Society, pp.906-909.


Vol. 5, no. 2, August 1887 Article, "The scope and present aspects of preventive medicine", pp.44-46.


Vol. 13, no. 4, 28 April 1894 Article, "On the prevention of epidemic cholera", [incomplete] pp.55-58.


Vol. 2, no. 7, 1855 Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, pp.343-347.

Vol. 2, no. 9, 1855 Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, p.441-445.

Vol. 3, no. 5, 1858 Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, p.222-226.

Vol. 3, no. 9, 1861 Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, p.399 and p.400.

Vol. 4, no. 1, 1864 Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, p.64.
Henry Hartshorne papers
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Part of the Historical Medical Library of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia Repository

19 S. 22nd Street
Philadelphia PA 19103 United States